머리말

 

 

악장은 아부문학인가, 아니면 경세문학인가. 지금까지 상당수의 학자들은 전자의 관점을 고수해왔다. 악장을 두고 ‘경세문학’ 운운하다가는 정신 나간 작자의 잠꼬대 취급을 받는 것도  그 때문이다. ‘아부의 교과서’라는 오명으로부터 쉽사리 벗어나지 못하고 있는 <용비어천가>의 신세를 보면 저간의 사정은 명백해진다. 글자깨나 깨우친 누구에겐가 ‘아부 성 발언’이라도 할라치면 대뜸 ‘용비어천가 읊지 말라’는 핀잔이 되돌아온다.

 

이처럼 근대 학문 초창기에 누군가 싱겁게 내뱉은 한 마디가 <용비어천가>와 악장을 옭아매는 족쇄로 작용하는 현실이다. 어릴 때 듣는 한 마디는 뇌리에 박혀 일생을 지배하고, 대대로 자손들의 생각까지 결정하는 걸까. 국문학에서 적잖은 편견과 오류들이 대를 이어 통용되고 있는데, 그 또한 초창기 일부 어른들의 사려 깊지 못한 판단으로부터 연유된 것들이다. 그런 점에서 근래 <용비어천가>를 비롯한 악장에 대하여 긍정적 시각을 갖는 사람들이 조금씩 늘어나고 있는 것은 다행이다. 이처럼 사람들의 생각이 좀처럼 바뀌지 않는다 해도 악장을 경세문학으로 보고자 하는 필자의 생각에는 변함이 없다.

 

국문학에서 악장만큼 담당계층과 이념, 문헌적 근거가 뚜렷한 장르도 드물다. 사실 민간의 음악이나 노래들은 악장 덕분에 치자그룹의 문화권 안으로 도입, 보존될 수 있었다. 굽이굽이 시간의 흐름 속에서 일부 역대 문학 장르들의 편린이나마 보존된 것은 악장 덕분이었다. 그러니 국문학의 올바른 이해를 위해서라도 악장에 대한 뿌리 깊은 편견은 버려야 한다. 그런 점에서 악장과 함께 한 몇 년은 고독하면서도 보람찬 세월이었다. 소외되어온 악장을 햇볕 내려 쪼이는 연구의 광장으로 밀어내는 데 얼마간 기여했다고 보기 때문이다. 성에 차진 않지만, 이쯤 마무리하고 ‘새 길’을 가려 한다.

 

                    *****

 

미흡한 연구계획을 곱게 보아주시어, 국학연구총서의 하나로 넣어주신 연세대학교 국학연구원의 배려에 감사드린다. 영문초록의 교정을 보아주신 마이클Michael Souza선생, 원고정리와 교정에 도움을 준 박병배·양영아 군, 거친 원고를 ‘이쁜’ 책으로 만들어 주신 민속원의 홍기원 사장님과 홍종화 부장님·오경희 선생 등 모든 분들께 감사드린다. ‘혼이 서린’ 일터, ‘숭실’ 재직 18년을 자축하며 이 책을 펴낸다.

 

                                                                     을유년 새봄

                                                                  백규서옥 주인 아룀

 

 

Abstract

 

  

 

         Literary Aesthetics of Joseon Dynasty's Akjang

 

 

                                                     Cho, Kyu-Ick

 

 

Table of Content

 

Foreword

 

Part 1  Surface and Aesthetic Nature of the Joseon Dynasty's Akjang

 Ⅰ. Existence and what should be of the Joseon Dynasty's Akjang

 Ⅱ. View of Music expressed in the Joseon Dynasty's Akjang  

 Ⅲ. The Sung Confucianistic Ideology of the Joseon Dynasty's Akjang

 Ⅳ. Correlativity of the Akjang and Jongjae(a court dance and music) in the

      Joseon Dynasty

 

Part 2  Joseon Dynasty's Reality Expressed in the Akjang

  Ⅰ. Dream of the Dynasty, Its Past·Present·Future : <Yongbi'eocheon'ga>

  Ⅱ. Desire to Reproduce the Buddha's Nation and Reality Contradictory to It :

       <Wolincheon'gangjigok>

  Ⅲ. Legitimacy of the Dynasty and What should be of the Perpetuity : Jongmyo          Akjang

  Ⅳ. Just Cause of Stratification and Will to Keep Their Vested Rights

 

Part 3  Harmony of Individual Consciousness and Collective Ideology

   Ⅰ. Statesmanship and Pride of a Pioneer Opening an Era : Jeong, Do-Jeon's

      Akjang

   Ⅱ. Just Cause and Spirit of Participation in Reality : Gweon, Geun's Akjang

   Ⅲ. Diplomacy and Domestic Administration, the Presentation of a New Paradigm

       : Ha, Ryun's Akjang

   Ⅳ. Quest for Ideal of Patriotism by Writing and Ideological Homogeneity of

      Governing Class : Byeon, Gye-Ryang's Akjang

   Ⅴ. Quest for Establishment of Structural Principle and Institutionalization of

      Music

      : Choi, Hang's Akjang

   Ⅵ. Will for Establishing and Keeping the Tyrannical Order : Sang, Jin's Akjang

   Ⅶ. Dream for the Revival of Royal Authority and a Peaceful Reign : the King

      Ikjong's Akjang   

 

Part 4  Stream of Joseon Dynasty's Akjang

    Ⅰ. Beginning of the Ye-Ak Culture and Institutional Settlement of

      Akjang : the First Stage

    Ⅱ. Social Disorder Caused by Troubles Both at Home and Abroad : the Mid

      Stage

    Ⅲ. Dynasty's Decline and Akjang's Fall : the Last Stage

 

 ? Bibliography

 

 ? Index

 

 ? Glossary

  

 

 

 

 

 

Part 1  Surface and Aesthetic Nature of the Joseon Dynasty's Akjang

 

 

 Ⅰ. Existence and what should be of the Joseon Dynasty's Akjang

 

Joseon Dynasty's Akjang is one of the Korean classical poetic genres. It was formed in the special situation that was combined the thought of Ye-Ak(decorum-music) in the Confucian cultural boundary and opening the Joseon Dynasty. Therefore, it was not a purely aesthetic happening. It is a special field originated from the real context. Otherwise, it is not an outward thing from the literary boundary. The regular style Akjang made of 4 Chinese letters every line seems to be introduced with A-Ak. It was a universal product of the Chinese cultural boundary at that time centering around China. For that reason, only the traditional folksongs were our songs as well as poems in the intrinsic meaning.  It was not literature to see written in letters but literature to sing through the folk music, i.d. Sok-Ak. We can seek the clue of the self-consciousness about our own literature's identity in the Joseon Dynasty's Akjang. Korean literature has an inseparable correlativity with music. Because the Korean literature is 'literature to sing'. A good many of the Joseon Dynasty's Akjang pieces were played in the traditional folk music or its variation. The music of Gagok or Gasa  probably were derived from them. Akjang form is that literature and music are contained in one structure. So, it is not easy to disclose Akjang's generic character. Goryeo Gayo or Gyeong'gichega as the traditional genres switched Akjang from abstract being to concrete substance. The historical and traditional nature jointly contained in Goryeo Gayo, Gyeong'gichega and Akjang is a presupposition of an essay of Akjang's genre. The situation of early Joseon Dynasty was not free from the cultural heritage from Goryeo Dynasty. For that reason, it was inevitable to receive Goryeo Gayo or Gyeong'gichega into Akjang. To use Chinese poems added suffixes as Akjang was a part of the effort to break from the actuality. Reaching the late Joseon Dynasty, some part of Gagok and Gasa were accepted in Akjang. And they were interpreted to be enlarged features of Akjang's inclination following the spirit of the age or reality. Akjang is a result from the time and culture, and a crystal made synthetically with the existing genres' lots of nature. Akjang is a sublimed substance of the unified generic natures from the lyric, epic, and didactic genre. It is just a foundation that Akjang can be a real genre as well as a supra genre in the traditional meaning. The opinion that Gagok and Gasa's prototype have already been inherent in the Sok-Ak Gasa or Akjang added suffixes and we can derived the Gagok and Gasa's structures from <Yongbi'oecheon'ga> is valid on this basis.

 

 

 Ⅱ. View of Music expressed in the Joseon Dynasty's Akjang

 

 

 View of music in the Joseon Dynasty was directly connected to an act of the state ; establishing the system or the operating the nation. And it actualized by producing and practically using Akjang. Unlike music or dance, Akjang was recorded and preserved literally. And It displayed its own artistic figure. It simultaneously acted as a ideologic landmark of the dynasty. Not on the artificiality but on the naturalness stands the essence of music. And it also can be defined as the possible figure of life. Accordingly, music definitely isn't a technique or accomplishment that man can simply learn to master.

 By contacting the external world, the human mind displays joy, anger, sorrow, and pleasure. The range of such manifestation communicates with the expression of variety. Therefore, the ruler had to make observations of the people's various opinions. The man who harmonized such expressions well could govern superbly. However, historically, music was divided into ideal ones and the ideal-not ones. Generally considered in China and the Joseon Dynasty, the music of China's three

old dynasties(Hsia, Yin, Chou) was idealistic, but the Ye-Ak after the dynasties was thought to be deteriorated. In the dynasty, daily life and every single proceedings were based on Ye-Ak, but after the three Dynastys, the music was degraded simply to minor details.

 The general view of music in the Joseon Dynasty can be summarized into "An era's cultural makings follow a new era's rising" and "The reason of harmony/ Inspiring after feeling, reprimanding vices". They thought that the old Korean dynasty's music was obscene and they could not succeed the music. They insisted that New kind of music has to be made in the new generation, inquiring into sound to make music, looking at music to be acquainted with authentic history, or combining music to reach the divinity and ruling the country in a harmony was the essence of the ancient view of music. The attempt ended up in changing the procedures of ceremonies or lyrics, however, the thought that "in the new era comes the new music" definitely contributed to the shaping of the Joseon Dynasty's characteristics which were different from those of the other dynasties. In the basic minds of the ideologic managers of Joseon Dynasty who tried to newly produce Akjang has the view of music mentioned above settled. And the point of view was in inseparable connection with the actual political aspect; establishing the system. At this point, the insight and the keen sight of the Joseon Dynasty's administrators, who adopted Ye-Ak as the base of political ideology, can be found.

 

 Ⅲ. The Sung Confucianistic Ideology of the Joseon Dynasty's Akjang

 

The Joseon Dynasty's Akjang is the most useful genre in expressing the collective ideology or world view of an era. The essential world view is based on the relation between a nation and an private person, a community and an individual. Jeong, Do-Jeon, Kwon, Geun, and Ha, Ryun established the paradigm of the early stage's Akjang. Their world view represented the era. It met the best days in the stage of Song of Flying Dragon(<Yongbi'eocheon'ga>). The rationality or the collective consent of the Akjang was originated from the Sung Confucianism, the ideological base of the high ranking official class. It's essence is the Heaven. The Heaven in this case is a concept of not a space but a origin that all things came from. Zhu Xi's view about the Heaven's decree is the framework of the world view in the Joseon Dynasty's Akjang, the concrete items are the Propriety and the Loyalty between the King and the Lieges. The concept of the public order is it's justification, and it is an order from the Heaven's decree. The viewpoint to be able to exchange their king as a man of virtue is from the theory of political revolution based on the Heaven's decree. The Heaven's decree expressed in the Joseon Dynasty's Akjang coincided with the Zhu Dynasty's ideology about it. And, it is based on the human nature and the natural law. The right and reason we have to follow is the Heaven's decree. Naturally, the concept of the Heaven's decree is originated from the governor's mind based on the Heaven's principle, rewarding the good and punishing the evil. <Yongbi'eocheon'ga> is one of the songs that the essence of the Heaven's decree and warning is expressed most substantially. The main stream of Akjang is the works that the leading transcendental rationality and the subordinate theses established a consistent concept of order. The transcendental rationality is related with the human mind, and it is based on the moral justice. We can make sure of the Heaven's decree as the result of the human's practical behavior about the truth from the Heaven's Law. This is the world view of the Joseon Dynasty's Akjang.

 

 

Ⅳ. Correlativity of the Akjang and Jongjae(a court dance and music) in the

      Joseon Dynasty

 

 

The Joseon Dynasty's Akjang is a literary genre, but, on the other hand, it is not. We have to judge it's artistic completion degree in the correlative context of the music, dance, and lyric lines. It is not a self-sufficient literary structure that can be completed in the words. It needs to approach to it from the view of a composite art to understand the true nature of the Akjang. Jongjae is a composite art of the music, dance, and lyric lines. Jongjae was a stage art only for the King and the ruling classes at that time.

It's nature is Pungryu(artistic refinement), no matter what it's motive or origin may be. Of course, the inclination of the Pungryu can be founded on the mirth as well as the reason. The appearance of the Pungryu has a close relation with the fashion and spirit of the day. Akjang is a lingual form being premised on the music or dance. The court dance is differentiated from the folk dance in respects of sending message through the dance action and order in the restricted space. Naturally, it has a weakness of artificiality comparing to the folk dance for the restriction of the real system.

Viewing from the record, the starting point of the Jongjae existing nowadays is the Dang-Ak and Sok-Ak in the ??Goryeosa-Akji??. Dang'ak-Jongjae is prevails in the scale and the artistic refinement. Although it is art form coming from abroad(old China), it is reasonable to think it as a standard of the thematic and aesthetic consciousness. The main stream of the Jongjae and Akjang from the Goryeo Dynasty to the late Chosun Dynasty was the process to enlarge their quantity through the repeated 'reception-change-creation'. Most of them is founded on the Pungryu. The Goryeo Jongjae showed the overwhelming mirth, the early Joseon Dynasty's Jongjae showed the overwhelming reason, and the late Joseon Dynasty's Jongjae showed the inclination of mirth again. The value of Akjang can be resuscitated only when we think over the actual meaning as the stage art. We have to start the new study about Akjang at this point from now on..

 

 

 

 

Part 2  Joseon Dynasty's Reality expressed in the Akjang

 

   Ⅰ. Dream of the Dynasty, Its Past·Present·Future : <Yongbi'eocheon'ga>

 

<Yongbi'eocheon'ga> is the ultimate of previous age's Akjang. Some of the major reasons are, firstly, its production was conducted by a royal order in a national organization. Secondly, the scale of <Yongbi'eocheon'ga> was tremendous. Most parts of it was used as lyrics of music played in the national events. Thirdly, Unlike former Akjang, the present king was eliminated from the story while only the former kings show up. Lastly, the basic information used were collected extensively from every nook and corner of the country representing the participation of people. After the production of <Yongbi'eocheon'ga>, no more Akjang that could stand comparison with the <Yongbi'eocheon'ga> didn't come out. Especially, the personal Akjang pieces that flourished before the making of <Yongbi'eocheon'ga> disappeared. The misunderstanding, that Akjang is a flattery literature, derived from personally written Akjang pieces, and <Yongbi'eocheon'ga> wiped out the disgrace. It was King Sejong's usual idea that the present king shouldn't be an object of the lyrics of Akjang.

 The view classifying <Yongbi'eocheon'ga> as a heroic poem is a new standpoint in the view of generic theory. At the same time, the classification is receiving much recognition in the recent days. But Six Ancestors' achievements are only embossing the subject views which derived from separate events or episodes. The writers were not interested in sublimating the events into amusing epics by connecting with the principle of causation. Someone explained the epic structure, exchanging its natural time order to epic time order. Especially, according to the fact that the description about the King Taejo, the main character, follows "the cycle of heroic life", some emphasized that<Yongbi'eocheon'ga> was a heroic poem. However, by abstracting and comparing the events(or illustrations) and each theme, it is clear that those definitely don't coincide with "the cycle of heroic life". Between each independent events exists the incomplete physical time order but no other connected principles.

 Judging from these reasons, the writers of <Yongbi'eocheon'ga> had no original intention of making it into an epic. Also, on the point that overcomes <Yongbi'eocheon'ga>'s theory of epic, the theory of lyric can't be an enough explanation. Therefore, It is appropriate to consider <Yongbi'eocheon'ga> as a didactic poetry. An evaluation considering <Yongbi'eocheon'ga> as "the last word of former age's Akjang" could be possible on the background of the disposition of the genre.

 

Ⅱ. Desire to Reproduce the Buddha's Nation and Reality contradictory to it :

       <Wolincheon'gangjigok>

 

 

<Wolincheon'gangjigok> is an epic poem regarding Buddha's entire life. It consists of 4 parts: the story of Buddha's previous life, from Buddha's birth to his leaving home, from Buddha's leaving home to his spiritual awakening, and from Buddha's spiritual awakening to entering Nirvana. The concrete activities and characters are described or narrated through the various affairs for each time. <Wolincheon'gangjigok> features as a heroic epic as well as Buddha's biography. It is based on the religious sanctity. It can be called a heroic epic, because Buddha follows a good or right path to get the final triumph. It would do credit to a standard heroic epic in the respect of its sublime philosophy. The whole work of <Wolincheon'gangjigok> consists of 'the whole prologue, preface, narration part, didactic part, epilogue'. Yet, including all the songs <Wolincheon'gangjigok>(the first volume), the text of this essay is a total of 194 units. Accordingly, we can ascertain the contents only about not long term after Buddha's spiritual awakening. In  the narration of Buddha's life, the various affairs are connected on the basis of time order and parallel row. The narration of <Wolincheon'gangjigok> is divided into five sequences. They are as follows;

 1. Sogudam, who was killed under a false accusation, is reborn in the Gudam family by Daegudamm and they flourished.

 2. The prince is born.

 3. The prince leaves home and practices asceticism.

 4. The prince accomplishes his spiritual awakening and saves

    the living things.

 5. Buddha enters Nirvana.

 

The sequences are divided into many sub-sequences. Affairs constructing the sequences are divided into the Kernels and Satellites. Sometimes, the songs don't fit with the whole story progression, which means a tangled situation in the plot. However, it can be said that the epic structure is formed toward carving the divinity of Buddha and religious sanctity. The core narrative in the <Wolincheon'gangjigok> regards the troubles between  the King Suddhodana and his son. The Prince wanted to go but the king Suddhodana wanted to buttonhole him from a secular viewpoint. Ultimately, leaving home and spiritual awakening were his final fate. <Wolinchon'gangjigok> has a surface meaning that defines the process forming the doctrines of Buddhism, an inner meaning that expresses King Sejong's mind. In the <Wolincheon'gangjigok>, it is possible to have the didactic conclusion as <Yongbi'eocheon'ga>, Therefore, it must be a special instance of Akjang that embodied the ultimate instructiveness based on this epic style.  

 

 

Ⅲ. Legitimacy of the Dynasty and What should be of the Perpetuity : Jongmyo          Akjang

 

 

I analyzed the author, theme, and structure of the Akjang sung at the Jongmyo-Ak(the memorial service music and dance in the Joseon Dynasty's Royal Ancestor's Shrine). Choe, Hang is presumed as the author. He had filled various government posts, and participated in the writing, proofreading, and translation of many books from the time of King Sejong. Especially, he took part in making Hunminjeong'eum, annotating the <Yongbi'eocheon'ga>, and writing the <Gongshin-yeon-gok>. The principles of making the Songs of Flying Dragons are fit for the Jongmyo-Ak. Externally, the main coupling device among the episodes is a non-fictional and historical order of the time related to the intended figures, internally its inclination is epic and fictional. The heart of the Akjangs' content is one of the figures' real achievements selected by the authors. The whole theme of the Jongmyo Akjang was realized with repeting the meaning of the figures' achievements through the prologue and the epilogue of every Akjang. Jongmyo Akjang is situated between the existing ritual Akjangs played with A-Ak and the <Yongbi'eocheon'ga> based on Sog-Ak. But, the existing ritual Akjang is too abstract to express the figures' historical facts or traces, on the contrary the <Yongbi'eocheon'ga> is too multitudinous to expose the core of the figures' character. Jongmyo Akjang showed the possibility to sublate the weak points of the existing ritual Akjang and the <Yongbi'eocheon'ga>, create a new paradigm. It is the reason I think Jongmyo Akjang reprsents the Joseon Dynasty's Akjang.  

 

 

 

Ⅳ. Just Cause of Stratification and Will to Keep Their Vested Rights

 

 

The main group of the revolution that changed a dynasty converted to the class in charge of Akjang. It was an absolute condition that decided an ideologic or thematic directivity of the Joseon Dynasty's Akjang. They overthrew the Goryeo dynasty externally, in fact they threw out the powerful group of the vested rights. In the process, they needed the royal protection, the royal authority had to have the support of the power group.

 The essence of the Akjang is to come up with an ideal that a dynasty will aim at. The national ideal is simple and explicit. So it doesn't have to have a stratified meaning. Nevertheless, there is an inside structure different from the professed ideology in the Akjang. It is caused by the reason that the group's real situation acted on as a presupposition of making Akjang. The powerful lieges used Akjang as a measure of a communication with the king or confirmation of the same quality of ideology each other. For this, Akjang is misunderstood that it has some dishonesty. Akjang is a record and song of a winner. The people out of the power circle can't make Akjang. They have no opportunity to make it, and is not permitted to make in the national system.

 The people who dedicated Akjang to the king are the powerful beings who secure the riches and honors at that point of time, to say the least of it. The wishful thinking is expressed in the Akjang, and it is packed with a noble cause and moral duty. But, there is a real desire of the makers in the inside. It had not have spread to the common people. And, it became withered as time goes by. The reason that it is nothing but singing the dream and desire of the ruling class repeatedly. The classical Ye-Ak is made the basis of the politics in the Joseon Dynasty. They put the royal authority on the summit of the ruling system by emphasizing the noble cause of the social strata, and planned to live together with the royal authority by emphasizing the noble cause of the harmony between the upper and lower classes through the music. Akjang appeared naturally in the situation, and it includes their world view just as it was.

 

 

 

Part 3  Harmony of Individual Consciousness and Collective Ideology

 

 

   Ⅰ. Statesmanship and Pride of a Pioneer Opening an Era : Jeong, Do-Jeon's

      Akjang

 

 

 Jeong, Do-Jeon is the founder of Joseon Dynasty's Akjang. And he was the first to  concretely reflect the categoric variation phenomenon of Korean literature to Akjang. He was creating traditional Akjang pieces which were imported from China. Simultaneously, he also transformed the contemporary poetic genres to fit into Akjang. His effort consequently continued to a creation of a new genre. He was dripped with the Joseon Dynasty's Akjang. Therefore, in praising the founder's virtues or in applauding the civilization and system of the new dynasty, it was impossible to overcome the existing frame of knowledge. The method of imitating the Song Dynasty's poetic genre Sa, a foreign genre, or making transcription to an existing piece of music, which showed a methodical limit, explains the situation. However, even though a makeshift(transcription) was used, only lyrics transformed to a form that was almost opposite from the traditional poetic genres. It was a meaningful phenomenon in the diachronic process of Korean literature genres. Centering around Taejo Lee, Seong-Gye, it was Jeong, Do-Jeon's Akjang to show "the change of heaven's will and the birth of a hero" structure. It was also his work to compile Korea's early stage Akjang pieces to <Yongbi'eocheon'ga>. A lot of pieces of Akjang he left were accepted to the song words of the various court dances in the ??Akjang'gasa??, ??Shiyonghyang'akbo??, ??Akhakguebeom??, even after his death. Consequently, many epigones which followed his style could be created. Moreover, his Akjang <Jeongdongbang'gok>, <Napsigok>, <Mundeokgok> were written in many books at that time, adding suffixes to aid the reading of Chinese texts. Of course, these were not the original works but were the phenomenon of modification after the creation. In this manner, Jeong, Do-Jeon's Akjang could play a specific role in modification of genre in literature, and also in the establishment of Ye-Ak.

 

 Ⅱ. Just Cause and Spirit of Participation in Reality : Gweon, Geun's Akjang

 

The originality of Gweon, Geun's Akjang pieces such as <Cheon'gam>, <Hwasan>, <Shinmyo>, <Pungyo>, <Hwa'aksi> are derived from the ??Book of Odes??'s <Daemyeong>, <Myeon>, <Saengmin>, <Cheongmyo>. It is his Akjang's source coming from outside. On the other side, the origin of <Sangdaebyeolgok> is situated in a part of <Manjeonchunbyeolsa> which was widely used as the Royal song until King SeongJong's era. This is the traditional originality of Gweon, Geun's Akjang.

 With Jeong, Do-Jeon, Gweon, Geun share the Confucius view of literature. He wanted to realize Dao(truth), unchangeable concept of value through literature.  Among his works, only <Sangdaebyeolgok> is worth talking about the meaning of literary history. It is adequate to explain the generic continuity and change only with it. The last part of <Sangdaebyeolgok> is same as a part of <Manjeonchunbyeolsa> structurally, <Sangdaebyeolgok> is a changed form of the typical Gyeong'gichega genre. It has a same structural character as the transformed Gyeonggichega Akjang and <Yongbi'eocheon'ga>. We can say that a generic clue of the Gagok and Gasa was prepared in the early Joseon Dynasty's Akjang. Gweon, Geun's Akjang is meager numerically, however all of them became a typical example for making Akjang in those days or the next days. He was in the place approved adequately as an originator of the early Joseon Dynasty's Akjang with Jeong, Do-Jeon.

 

 

Ⅲ. Diplomacy and Domestic Administration, the Presentation of a New Paradigm

       : Ha, Ryun's Akjang

 

Ha, Ryun founded a model of the early Joseon Dynasty's Akjang with Jeong, Do-Jeon, Gweon, Geun, Byeon, Gye-Ryang. His Akjang pieces, <Geuncheonjeong>, <Sumyeongmyeong> are songs to praise King Taejong's achievements. We can imagine the tradition of making Akjang in the early Josoen Dynasty through <Doseonghyeongseungjigok>, <Doinsongdojigok>, <Yeomnongbugok>, <Yeomjambugok>, <Jin'ga'eon'gok>, <Geuncheonjeong> and <Sumyeongmyeong> are songs to praise King Taejong's achievements in his diplomacy with the Ming Dynasty. Ha, Ryun was a real power in the political world at that time. He had to accomplish the purpose to praise the King's achievements, at the same time justify the toadyistic diplomacy to the Ming Dynasty. His Akjang pieces were used in the beginning part of the Hoerye'yeon in place of Jeong, Do-Jeon's Akjang. However, the measure was a result caused by the King Taejong's political prejudice about his opponent, Jeong, Do-Jeon. Therefore, the measure could be changed when the atmosphere at that time was changed. <Geuncheonjeong>, <Sumyeongmyeong> were criticized by King Sejong. Although his Akjang pieces were washed out by the current of the times, they had been referred as a good type of making Akjang, and followed by the transcribers of the coming ages.

 

 

Ⅳ. Quest for Ideal of Patriotism by Writing and Ideological Homogeneity of

      Governing Class : Byeon, Gye-Ryang's Akjang

 

Jeong, Do-Jeon's idea about Akjang was flourished only after it was accepted by Byeon, Gye-Ryang. He had grasped an exclusive right of the dynasty's writing affairs, and played a leading role for writing the government's public documents or establishing the policies of Ye-Ak. Jeong, Do-Jeon said his Akjang had all ages' writing styles. Byeon, Gye-Ryang wasn't beside Jeong, Do-Jeon's viewpoint about Akjang. Byeon, Gye-Ryang was able to establish the tradition making Akjang for a long time on the ground of real political power, comparing to Jeong, Do-Jeon. As the result of it, some poetic genres of the past times were transferred to the new genres. His Akjang pieces are divided into a fixed and changeable form. The latter has a meaning in the generic transference was a natural phenomenon whether by personal consciousness about beauty or by the need of the times. The Korean literary phase of Byeon, Gye-Ryang's Akjang is at this point.

 

 

Ⅴ. Quest for Establishment of Structural Principle and Institutionalization of Music

      : Choi, Hang's Akjang

 

Jeong, Do-Jeon, Gweon, Geun, Ha, Ryun, Byeon, Gye-Ryang were the persons who established the paradigm of the first stage's Akjang. Choi, Hang was a representative in the second generation. He established the basis of Akjang in the accomplishing period, annotating <Yongbi'eocheon'ga> that has a meaning of completion or type in the early Joseon Dynasty. He didn't engage himself in the belles-lettres. He rather had the pragmatic view of patriotism with literature contributing to accomplish the purpose of the politics and education. Most poems in his anthologies aren't beside the actual context. The core content of praise in his Akjang are moral principles that King, the governor has to keep in mind. It can be ascertained even by the moral caution, the core thematic consciousness. He had a Confucius literary view as a founder of the court literature in the early Joseon Dynasty. Dao, core doctrine of Confucius was the first question awaiting realization through politics. The truth was a principle that can be realized only through writings. Therefore, 'dao-writings-politics' are the concepts to be located on the same line. The literati like Choi, Hang wanted to serve their country, realize the dao in everyday life through the process. Setting these facts forth as a premise, he was the first person who made the structural frame of Akjang on the ground of ideology after <Yongbi'eocheon'ga>.

 

 

Ⅵ. Will for Establishing and Keeping the Tyrannical Order : Sang, Jin's Akjang

 

 Sang, Jin's Akjang pieces show a part of the habit about making and singing the songs from the end of Goryeo to early Joseon Dynasty. They have a special meaning for being used as Akjang. Songs at that time had same quality, whether they were used as Akjang or sung by ordinary persons. His songs known until now are two. One is <Gojo>, the other is <Gamgun'eun> descended from Goryeo Dynasty. However, it is supposed that the lyrics were made by Sang, Jin. Especially, the tune of <Bukjeon> and <Mandae'yeop> were extremely similar, the latter was transformed and settled to Gagok. We can regard the lyrics' form of <Gojo> as Gagok itself or Sijo poetry at the late Joseon Dynasty. <Gamgun'eun> has a well-knit frame, and it has something in common with <Eobuga> descended from the former ages in the side of content or structure. The adapted <Eobuga> was sung in the tune of <Jinjak>. Accordingly, <Gojo> which has same lyrics as <Bukjeon> and <Gamgun'eun> which has same lineage as <Eobuga> have an intimate correlation with each other. It cannot be sure that the earlier documents or records than the lyrics of <Gojo> put on Sang, Jin's anthology, ?Beomheojeongjip?. We can consider his song <Gojo> as the first work of Gagok(or Sijo) loaded in document. An important meaning of poetic history is that it is related to Akjang as well as to Gagok or Sijo.

 

Ⅶ. Dream for the Revival of Royal Authority and a Peaceful Reign : the King

      Ikjong's Akjang  

 

Ikjong as a supreme sovereign leaded to administrate and perform the Jungjae, the court stage art, and wrote many works of Akjang. He wrote fifty six works of Akjang confirmed until now. During his short lifetime, the prominent achievements were the Jinyon and Jinjak(the ceremonies to wish his parents long lives). He leaded the ceremonies, made the Jungjae(the court dances and musics) for use, and wrote many works of Akjang. He made the Akjang with collecting the lines of poems derived from the ?Book of Odes?, borrowing the motifs from the previous Akjang. To make the Akjang for the royal feasts, he borrowed the ideas from the Chinese ballad dances or the previous Jungjaes. Or he used the method filling up his poetic idea to the others' poems. Especially, it was an epoch-making achievement to bring Gagok into Akjang. Also, it was a clue to show the meeting between the court arts and the folk arts. It was a possible achievement because of his profound attainments about the folk music. He wanted to express the consciousness respecting Chou through the Akjang for the memorial rites externally, his will for restoring the royal authority through the consciousness respecting the King internally. They can concentrate the estranged public mind on account of the twice wars on one point and maintain the status of the governing class through the national memorial rites, he believed. Also from the Akjang for royal feasts, we can understand Ikjong's will to strengthen the ruling structure centering around the King. Like this, we have to remember him as an important figure who replaced the paradigm of the Joseon Dynasty's Akjang.

 

 

 

Part 4  Stream of Joseon Dynasty's Akjang

 

   Ⅰ. Beginning of the Ye-Ak Culture and Institutional Settlement of

      Akjang : the First Stage

 

A paradigm of the Joseon Dynasty's Akjang was established in the days of King Teajo. A trend to fit the Akjang's custom to the Joseon Dynasty's cultural system appeared during the days of King Taejong. From the days of King Sejong, they began to show the dynasty's ideal or their intention to express it in the works of Akjang. Prior to the days of King Sejong, Akjang was created mostly by some individual writers. In the days of King Sejong, it was created mainly by the appropriate authorities of the government. The change meant a systemization in the creation of Akjang. King Sejong disliked the works of Akjang to praise the present kings or their government. His viewpoint about Akjang acted on the improvement of its custom and system. And the viewpoint was reflected in <Yongbi'eocheon'ga> most clearly.

 The systemization of Ye-Ak was further improved in the days of King Sejo and Seongjong. Among them, Akjang was put in a good order. The reconsideration about the Akjang's substance was one of the most important parts in its betterment. The main stream of Akjang made a stroke in the days of King Seongjong.

 

   Ⅱ. Social Disorder Caused by Troubles Both at Home and Abroad : the Mid

      Stage

 

The Ye-Ak culture was changed suddenly according to the tyrant Yeonsan's appearance. Music was degraded to the tool for the King's enjoyment, eventually the Ye-Ak culture descended was destroyed. The destroyed Ye-Ak culture passing through the tyrant's time was newly researched according to the King Jeongjo's appearance. It was almost rebuilt during the time of King Myeongjong. The discuss about Jongmyo'jerye or it's Akjang got into stride arriving on the period of the King Seonjo. The action to make sure the rites or procedures about Jongmyo'jerye. Especially, the Ye-Ak culture was started to rebuild on the ground zero resulted from the destruction by Japanese invasion of Korean in 1592. Passing through the times of the King Injo, Hyojong, Myeongjong, a lot of argument about Jongmyo Akjang and Akjang for King Seonjo was complicated. They poured their power in rebuilding the destroyed Ye-Ak culture and discussion about Akjang at that time. After that, according to the King Sukjong's appearance, a restoration of Ye-Ak culture and an improvement of Akjang were tried newly. The age of the King Sukjong was outstanding in the side of the quality and quantity about Akjang. First of all, the discussion about the music, Akjang, and the procedure about Jongmyo-ak, Yeongsojeon, Daebodan disclosed a concrete and important meaning. The discussion about Jongmyo-Ak was continued during the age of the King Yeongjo, following the former ages. At the same time, they prepared to escalate and systemize the ceremonies of Jinyeon. Reflection about Akjang or old music system was animated during the King Jeongjo. Bongsudang Jinchan made at that time was an essence of the Ye-Ak culture of the King Jeongjo's era. We can see that the various Jeongjaes and their ceremonial procedures were compiled at that time.

 

   Ⅲ. Dynasty's Decline and Akjang's Fall : the Last Stage

 

Arriving at the late Joseon Dynasty era, Akjang for memorial rites and royal feasts was enlarged abnormally. Some large scale royal feasts were carried out conducted by the Crown Prince Hyomyeong during the King Sunjo's era. The feasts were divided into Jinyeon and Jinchan, Jinyeon into Naejinyeon and Oejinyeon, and Jinchan into Naejinchan, Oejinchan, and Yajinchan. The Crown Prince poured his power in the royal feasts for restoration of the royal authority and its buildup. Arriving to the King Heonjong's era, the music and lyrics of Gagok came into the royal feast music. Starting from that, some contacts of people's music and court music became live. Even in the King Gojong's era, a tendency like that was continued. Making Akjang pieces of Jinyeon and Jinchan, King Gojong re-enacted himself the habit of making by King left by the Crown Prince Hyomyeong. King Gojong left 21 pieces of Akjang and 4 pieces of Chisa in his anthology ?Juyeonjip?. The fall of Akjang is perceived from the Sunjo's era when the various feast Akjang works were started to enlarge abnormally. The Crown Prince Hyomyeong was a prominent person in charge of the public entertainment at that time. He had a mission to lift up the royal authority cast down by the King's maternal relatives. He thought it was possible to accomplish the mission with representing the royal feasts splendidly. It was the reason that he concerned about the existing Jeongjaes descended from the former ages or made newly. He started to reign representing his father at the age of twenty, he filled the large part of his reign with the project or practice of the various royal feasts. The style of the Crown Prince's actions were settled to a general trend, and it continued to the King Heonjong, Cheoljong, Gojong' era. One of the noticeable things in this process was the fact that the people's music culture centering around Gagok was accepted to the royal feasts. That is to say, the royal art met the people's art at that time, it means the people's songs were accepted to Akjang. The first utility of the people's music is 'Heung', namely mirth, and mirth is the primary aesthetic factor of enjoyment. An important theme like an enhancement about the supremacy of ideology or what should be of the political system-maintenance was to be pushed out of Akjang. Only praise or wishing a long life for a king became to fulfil the vacant space. Akjang disappeared at that point, and it didn't seem to revive after that. Akjang died. We have no other art genres to take the place of Akjang. So our life become desolate.