머리말

 

시리도록 파란 한겨울의 다도해. 정결한 햇살 속에 행복해 보이는 건 점점이 뿌려진 섬들뿐이었다. 조막 섬들을 감고 도는 바다 위로 ‘삶을 캐는’ 해녀들의 휘파람 소리가 가늘게 이어지고, 무심한 갈매기들은 흥에 겨운 듯 그 소리 따라 춤을 추고 있었다. 그곳에서 삶의 무게에도 아랑곳하지 않고 힘차게 살아가는 해녀들을 만났다. 단단한 땅만 디디고 살면서도 불만으로 가득 찬 우리들. 그곳에서 우린 분명 이방인이었다. 꿈의 다도해. 우리에겐 낭만의 공간이었으나, 해녀들에겐 삶과 죽음이 교차하는 서사적 공간이었다. 우리에겐 화려한 놀이의 공간이었으나, 그들에겐 절박한 실존의 공간이었다. 그들은 바다에서 망사리 가득 삶을 담아왔지만, 우리가 그 속에서 발견한 것은 ‘허무’뿐이었다. 우리가 그들에게 가까이 다가서야 한다는 것은 당위이었으나, 각자가 속해있는 현실과 인식의 공간은 멀고도 멀었다. 청맹과니가 된 채 우리가 헤맨 곳은 고작 관념의 언저리였음을 깨달았다. 그들이 울음으로 토해낸 삶의 진액을 기껏 책상 앞에 들러붙어 현학의 허세로 난도질이나 하고 있었으니, 실로 부끄러운 일이었다. 

 

 아직도 그곳엔 해녀들이 있었다. 할머니, 어머니로 이어내린 강인한 생명력도 그대로였다. 그런 까닭에 소섬(우도)에서, 서귀포에서, 성산포에서 물질하던 ‘제주도 해녀들’이 출가出稼 후 뿌리내린 다도해의 해안은 또 다른 ‘작은 제주도’였다. 그들이 가꾸어온 ‘물질[어로노동]문화’는 제주 해녀의 긍지였고 그 정체성의 징표였다. 이제 시절이 좋아져 옛날처럼 노를 저을 필요가 없게 되었다. 그 뿐인가. 고무로 만들어진 물질 옷은 살을 에는 한기를 막아줄 수 있게 되었다. 그러나 열 길 물 속 사신死神 곁으로 뛰어들어야 하는 두려움만은 바뀌지 않았다. 그들은 ‘편하게 사는 것’만이 유일한 가치가 아니라는 깨달음을 온몸으로 보여주고 있었다. 그 값진 노동을 통해 자연 속에서 인간의 한계를 부단히 확인해가는 해녀들의 일생이야말로 날이 갈수록 더욱 빛날 것이라는 점, 지금 누구도 부인할 수 없으리라. 

 

 서부 경남 해안지역의 해녀들로부터 <해녀 노 젓는 소리>를 채록·분석하는 것이 본 연구팀의 목표였다. 그러나 노 젓는 배가 사라졌으니, 그 노래가 남아 있을 리 없었다. 그래서 전·현업 해녀들을 두루 찾아다니며 그들의 기억 속에 저장된 노래의 흔적들을 ‘동냥’해야 했다. 고된 물질 작업이 끝나면 밤이 이슥해지곤 했다. 하루 종일 녹초가 되어 ‘빨리 구들장이나 지고 싶다’는 해녀들에게 통사정하여 노래를 한두 수 얻어듣기란 수월한 일이 아니었다. 그래도 한 수 두 수 녹음기에 담겨가는 모습을 보며 우리들은 내심 흐뭇해했다. 해녀들이 어린 시절 할머니나 어머니에게 얻어들은 노래들은 대부분 기억 속에서 이미 곰팡이가 슬어 있었다. 그나마 그 정도로라도 보존된 것은 제주 해녀들의 총명함 덕분이었다. 수십 년 간 노 저을 일이 없었는데, 노 젓는 노래가 불렸을 리 없다. 부르지 않는 노래가 기억 속에 남아 있을 이유 또한 없었다. 그럼에도 그들이 노 젓는 시늉을 하면서 막힘없이 부를 수 있었던 것은 그 노래들을 어린 시절부터 ‘노역勞役’ 속에서 익혔기 때문이다. 말하자면 교실에서 배운 노래들이 아니라, 노동의 현장에서 눈물과 함께 익혔으므로 그 노래는 이미 팔다리의 근육 속에 배어들어 있었던 것이다. 가만히 앉아서는 생각도 나지 않던 노래가 노 젓는 시늉만 하면 거침없이 흘러나오는 모습을 통해 그런 점을 알 수 있었다. 우리는 노래를 찾으러 갔다가 그들의 삶을 얻었고, 그들의 삶을 통해 우리의 무지를 깨닫게 되었다.

 

                    * * * * * * * *

 

 여기에 이름을 밝혀 고마움을 표해야 할 분들이 많다. 주로 거제도와 통영 지역의 해녀들, 어촌계장들이다. 사천시 서부경남 제주도민연합회 이창조 회장님, 사량도 어촌계 함정홍 계장님, 거제시 제주도민회 고창환 회장님, 거제 향토사 연구소 이승철 소장님 등 조사·연구 과정에서 큰 도움을 주신 여러 어른들께 감사드린다. 무엇보다도 사천시의 윤계옥·우점이, 거제시의 김경자·고봉운·우춘녀·정구미·이순옥·윤미자·고순금, 통영의 현종순·현영자·강상근·김생순·김순열·고산백·강창화, 남해의 김선옥 님 등 노래를 들려주신 잠수潛嫂들은 본 연구에 결정적으로 기여한 분들이다. 이 분들이 아니었으면 본 연구는 한 발도 앞으로 나아갈 수 없었을 것이다. 이 분들께 엎드려 감사드린다.

 좋은 사진을 제공해주신 사진작가 김익종·서재철 선생님, 거친 원고를 곱게 다듬어 멋진 책으로 꾸며주신 민속원의 홍기원 사장님·홍종화 부장님·조정화 선생께 감사드린다. 내 친구 마이클Michael Souza선생은 이번에도 영문초록의 교정을 꼼꼼히 보아 주었다. 무어라 고마움을 표해야 할지 모르겠다. 본 연구는 한국학술진흥재단에서 큰 연구비를 제공해준 덕분에 무리 없이 수행되었고, 빛을 볼 수 있었다. 재단의 후의에 감사드리며, 이 책을 그 결과물로 세상에 내어 놓는다. 겸허한 마음으로 동학제현의 관심과 질정을 기다린다.

 

 

                             2005. 6. 30.

 

                

                                 잡답의 서울에서

                                 다도해의 정결하고 너른 품을 떠올리며

 

                                                 연구책임자  조규익   

 

 

 

 

영문초록

 

 

A Field Study on the Transmission of the Jeju Island's Women Divers' Rowing Songs to the Korean Mainland

  -Centering around the Western Gyeongnam Coastal Regions of Korea-

 

 

                   Cho, Kuy-Ick/Lee, Seong-Hun/Moon, Sukhie/Kang, Myeong-Hye

 

 

 

 

Table of Contents

 

Foreword

 

1st part

 

. Existence and Meaning of Munteul

. Characteristics of Their Transmission

. Synchronic and Diachronic Approach

. Musical Approach

. Bibliography

    Index

 

2nd part

 

. Lyrics

. Scores by Singers

 

Appendix : CD of the Songs

 

 

 

Abstract

 

 

   . Existence and Meaning of Munteul

 

 

                                                                                         

I came acrosst a special term, Munteul meaning a literary framework during the field work for <Korean Women Divers' Rowing Songs> in the coastal region of Western Kyeongnam. Munteul  is a common concept of form and style in all of the women divers' songs including their rowing songs. It is also a concept of form and style generalized among the women divers of Jeju Island and other regions. Munteul of <Korean Women Divers' Rowing Songs>  coincide with the 'meaning' category of the Formula(formula-formulaic expression-theme) worked out by A. B. Lord. Munteul can be considered not only as the singers' unit of memory and transmission, but also a unit for making poems. All informants have the Munteul as the semantic and structural unit of <Korean Women Divers' Rowing Songs> . Judging from their statements, there are a great number of sorrowful, pleasant, and reproaching Munteul, We can only guess its variety. However, its form is so simple. The songs have some functional factors. So, whatever content the Munteul has, it is a help to rowing labor. Some principles like  'choice and metonymy, extension, borrowing' work on the formation of Munteul. <Korean Women Divers' Rowing Songs> have developed from the simple to the complicated. In the process, the part related with the real labor and personal emotion unrelated with the real labor were unified in a structure. It is a substance having a sort of diachronic disposition, because Munteul can continue as far as the songs last.

 

 

 

. Characteristics of Their Transmission

 

 This study is on transmission and variation of <Korean Women Divers' Rowing Songs> in Western Gyeongnam Province.  In 1889, women divers in Chejudo came to the mainland to work in Cheongsando, Wando, Busan, Yeongdo, Geojedo, Dolsan, Gijang, Woolsan and even in Gyeongbuk Province.  In this sense, it is safe to say that the women divers from Chejudo began to temporarily leave their homes for other work places as early as the late 19C in earnest. Accordingly <Korean Women Divers' Rowing Songs> also began to spread to the mainland at that time.  As for Geoje City and Sacheon City in Western Gyeongnam Province, rowing boats singing <Korean Women Divers' Rowing Songs> continued till the late 1960s when power boats were newly introduced.

Women divers, who were born in Chejudo and moved to Western Gyeongnam Province for work, learnt <Korean Women Divers' Rowing Songs> when swimming to the workplace on the coast from Chejudo or when rowing to the workplace in their new working environment.  Most of the women divers who settled in Western Gyeongnam Province actually learned the songs when working in the mainland after leaving their home town.

Women divers who had learnt <Korean Women Divers' Rowing Songs> when swimming to work in Chejudo sang only fragmentary parts of the song.  It is because the distance they had to swim from the seashore to their workplace on the coast was short, and they had to sing in waves with only a short time to sing <Korean Women Divers' Rowing Songs>.

Contrastingly, those who had learnt <Korean Women Divers' Rowing Songs> when going to their workplace from the mainland by boat could sing relatively longer parts of the songs.  This is attributed to the fact that they rowed to small islands on the coast for relatively longer periods of time in Western Gyeongnam Province, with longer time to sing.  The songs could be even richer depending on personal characteristics of the singer, which is believed to be correlated to the singer's word-creating and singing abilities.

The lyrics of <Korean Women Divers' Rowing Songs> which passed through Western Gyeongnam Province showed several features, such as variations with nouns, connective suffixes of inflected words, and auxiliary words, as well a refrain that changed into a 2 metrical foot structure.

Through this study, it was confirmed that the singers, who were born in Chejudo but lived in Gyeongnam Province for a long time, or who were born in Gyeongnam Province and briefly lived in Chejudo but whose parents were from Gyeongnam Province, were under a linguistic environment where they could easily learn the dialect of Gyeongnam Province, and thus tended to sing <Korean Women Divers' Rowing Songs> in the Gyeongnam Province dialect.

Hyeon Jong-sun was an active singer who could add new content to the original words of <Korean Women Divers' Rowing Songs> transmitted in fixed words, to make a complete structure of parallelism, while Yoon Mi-ja had excellent word-creating and singing ability, by dividing <Korean Women Divers' Rowing Songs>, which had been generally sung in one phrase, into two phrases and by extending the words.

 

 

. Synchronic and Diachronic Approach

 

 The purpose of this paper is to examine diachronically and synchronically the sound that have been sung by Jeju Island women divers when they went to the sea.

   The study results reveal that the quality of divers lives had got much better, and it has been proven that the women divers have become the object of envy with a high rate of profits in their own specialty. Some things have changed a lot; lead is being used at this time, and have become much simpler because of the improvement in quality. In the past, it was not  that important to change one's life drastically. For example, it has been shown that rubber diving suits have merits and demerits even our modern age. Moreover, many of names that have been used in Jeju Island have been changed over the years.

 On the other hand, when it has been taken as a side view of a folk belief, women divers in the western area of Gyeong Nam have kept the folk beliefs of Jeju Island where they were born. Because of this, they had many restrictions that followed from when they were living in their former hometowns. Part of them have become extinct or changed, and it has been seen that there were many changes both individually and collectively. Thus, the religious services that were organized by the children of women divers with relatives in Sa Cheon and Tong Yeong, connected new practices with traditional folk beliefs. Private devotion had existed in Yongwangmegigi, which had been used by Jeju women divers from ancient times. Each area saw different changes that resulted in simpler beliefs and practices. These had been changed into simpler beliefs in each area differently.

 As a result of studying what had been changed and what aspects had been assumed on The sound of rowing women divers, yeogi yotong sadowirogunang what has been found by the writer was the song for working(물질) near the water though, The yeogi yotong sadowirogunang  is regarded as the archetype of the sound of rowing women divers mainly because the principal words of the songs appeared as they have been, and also as a refrain.

 What is more important is that, as a result of researching the sound, which was selected by women divers who left their hometown in western Gyeong Nam, it has been shown that there were similar words of the songs within the sound of rowing. In accordance with this, it was considered as a common code, which distinguished between the sounds of rowing women divers and the sounds of rowing. Overall, it cannot be confirmed that the sounds of rowing women divers had significant changes on the basic structure either diachronically nor synchronically. Its function as a recreated text depends on the various situations.  

  The result is that these songs create a collection of the sounds of the rowing women divers, who have left their homes, They must be collected without delay.

 

. Musical Approach

       

<Korean Women Divers' Rowing Songs> are the song that woman divers from Jeju island sang while rowing when they would go to and come back from work. These songs have also been transmitted to the mainland. This paper analyzes the songs that were transmitted to the mainland and compares them with the songs from Jeju island. The results of this study are summarized as follows.

The melodic phrases of these songs begin with two specific types of melodies that are similar, and ends with three types of cadences, which are a characteristic of these songs. These songs consist of an opening and several periods. The melody of the opening appears with modifications in the following periods. The melodies of the melodic phrases are descending, for the most part. The mode of these songs are basically a re-mode, but sometimes it is changed to a do-mode. The musical range of these songs are usually one octave, and the rhythm is in six-eights time.

The songs transmitted to the main land are similar to the songs from Jeju island. However the re-mode is not kept in the songs of the main land as strong as in the songs of Jeju island. This is probably because the songs transmitted to the main land are affected by popular songs which tend to end with "do" rather than by the folk mode Menari-tori.

 

key wordss: Korean Women Divers' Rowing Songs, Munteul , Formula, Jeju Island, Coastal Region of Western Kyeongnam, Unit of memory, Unit of making poems, Unit of transmission, Choice, Extension, Borrowing, Women Divers' Rowing Songs, transmission, variation, refrain, singing ability Woman diver's rowing song, Jeju island, main land, re-mode, do-mode, Menari-tori, cadences.